a philosophy glossary

Note: Headwords in bold and italics are personal definitions.

absurdism – the philosophical position that everything is without meaningless and irrational.

a priori – prior given knowledge.

a posteriori – gained from knowledge.

body-object – a sentient object.

conceptualism – the position that universals are concepts dependent upon thought.

deduction – reasoning from a general premise to a particular conclusion.

discretion – the condition of space and objects being discrete and complete things.

empiricism – the position that experience, and not reason, is the basis of our knowledge of the world.

essence – something which defines an object independent of the existence of it.

existence – the object as a thing.

existentialism – a philosophical position in which everything is meaningless and with without intrinsic reason, where one has complete freedom of choice and must take absolute responsibility for their actions.

form – perfect conceptual universal “ideal” of a thing.

free will – the ability to choose one’s own actions [within a limited set of choices].

idea – (see form)

idealism – “the position that ideas, not objects, are the basis of reality; the opposite of realism and materialism.” (Rohmann, 2000)

induction – reasoning from the particular instance to a general conclusion.

materialism – the position that matter and only matter, exists.

nihilism – “the position that ere are no philosophical standards, that knowledge is impossible or at least worthless, that all action, all thought, all ethical, and metaphysical conjecture is baseless and empty.” (Rohmann). “The rejection of all traditional values, authority, and institutions. The term was coined in 1862 by Ivan Turgenev in his novel Fathers and Sons, and was adopted by the nihilists, a group of Russian radicals of the period.” (Crofton)

nominalism – the general terms of things are the only thing of commonality among categorised objects.

noumena – “things-in-themselves”.

object – a thing “in” space. Space and objects (space/object) are one “system”. One infers the other.

object-self – the sentient object from which we know the world.

ontology – the philosophical study of the nature of what exists and how they exist.

perception – processed sense data.

phenomena – “things-as-they-appear”.

physicalism – there is only the physical world.

process philosophy – the position that reality is a constantly unfolding and advancing process or change.

rationalism – the position that reason, and not experience, is the basis of our knowledge of reality.

realism – (1) the position that things, not ideas, are the basis of reality; the opposite of idealism. (2) (old usage) the position that universals define objects.

representation – thing to which we have no direct access, only through the senses do we have knowledge of it.

sensation – unprocessed sense data.

self-body-object – the body-object from which one has physical perception of the world.

space – the absence of an object.

space/object – without time, space/object is a static state. Staticity (that is, space/object without time) is a concept and does not exist or is “pure”.

space/object-time or world – the entire existing world which consists of space, object and time. There is discretion of space, object and objects. “Pure” or abstract discretion is termed space/object. This dynamic discretion is termed space/object-time.

state – the idea that something is static or unchanging is a mental concept without factual basis.

thing – of objects or space.

thing-object – a non-sentient object.

time – the dynamic change in the configuration of space/object.

transcendental idealism – the position that both reason and experience are necessary in order to understand the world.

truth – of objects and events (ontological truth). Of logic (logical truth).

will – that (the self) which gives us access to an object.

world – see space/object-time.